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INFORMACIÓN SOBRE EL SIDA Y VIH

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DEFINITIONS AND ACRONYMS

A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

ACTG (AIDS Clinical Trials Group): A network of medical centers around the country in which federally-funded clinical trials are conducted to test the safety and efficiency of experimental treatments for AIDS and HIV infection; studies funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).

Administrative Agent: Organization, agent or other entity (e.g., public health department, community-based organization) which functions in political jurisdictions within Part A EMAs to assist the grantee in carrying out administrative activities (i.e., disbursing program funds, developing reimbursement and accounting systems, developing Requests for Proposals [RFPs], monitoring contracts, etc.). Not all grantees use a separate administrative agent.

AETC (AIDS Education and Training Center): Regional centers providing education and training for primary care professionals and other AlDS-related personnel; authorized under Part F of the CARE Act.

AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): Disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus.

ASO (AIDS Service Organization): An organization that provides medical or support services primarily or exclusively to populations infected with and affected by HIV disease.

CARE Act (Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act): The Federal legislation created to address the health care and service needs of people living with HIV disease and their families in the United States; enacted in 1990 and reauthorized in 1996 and 2000.  In 2006,  Congress passed the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Treatment Modernization Act, extending the Ryan White Care Act for an additional three years.  In 2009, Congress passed the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Treatment Extension Act, extending the Ryan White Care Act for four more years.

CBO (Community-based organization): An organization which provides services to locally defined populations, which may or may not include populations infected with or affected by HIV disease.

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention): The Federal agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that administers HIV/AIDS prevention programs, including the HIV Prevention Community Planning process, among other programs; responsible for monitoring and reporting of infectious diseases; administers AIDS surveillance grants and publishes epidemiological reports such as the HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report.

CEO (Chief Elected Official): The official recipient of Part A CARE Act funds within the EMA, usually the mayor or chair of the county board of supervisors. The CEO is ultimately responsible for administering all aspects of the CARE Act in the EMA and ensuring that all legal requirements are met. In EMAs with more than one political jurisdiction, the recipient of Part A CARE Act funds is the CEO of the city or urban county that administers the public health agency that provides outpatient and ambulatory services to the greatest number of people with AIDS in the EMA.

Comprehensive Planning: The process of determining the organization and delivery of HIV services; strategy used by a planning council to improve decision-making about services and maintain a continuum of care for PLWHAs.

Core Services:  Ryan White Parts A, B, and C grantees must spend at least 75% of funds on "core medical services." These services include outpatient and ambulatory health services; pharmaceutical assistance; substance abuse outpatient services; oral health; medical nutritional therapy; health insurance premium assistance; home health care; hospice services; mental health services; early intervention services; and medical case management, including treatment adherence services.  The remaining funds may be spent on Support Services.

CPCDMS (Centralized Patient Care Data Management System) A real-time, de-identified client-level computer database application that allows Part A-funded providers share client eligibility information maintaining client confidentiality.  Information collected includes demographic, co-morbidity, biological marker, mortality and service utilization data. Since its inception in June of 2000, over 10,000 clients have been registered in the CPCDMS.  In addition, the CPCDMS has been the foundation upon which evaluation and quality management activities in the EMA were built.

DSHS: Texas Department of State Health Services.

EIIHA (Early Identification of Individuals with HIV/AIDS):  Identifying, counseling, testing, informing, and referring of diagnosed and undiagnosed individuals to appropriate services, as well as linking newly diagnosed HIV positive individuals to care.

ECHPP (Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning) A 3-year demonstration project funded by CDC's Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP) for the 12 municipalities with the highest number of people living with AIDS in the US.  As part of the response to the National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS), the ECHPP project supports the 12 Cities Project which is directed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).  

EMA (Eligible Metropolitan Area): The geographic area eligible to receive Part A funds. The boundaries of the metropolitan area are defined by the Census Bureau. Eligibility is determined by AIDS cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Some EMAs include just one city, other EMAs are composed of several cities and/or counties; and some EMAs extend over more than one state.

Epidemic: The spread of an infectious disease through a population or geographic area.

Formula Grant Application: The application used by EMAs and States each year to request an amount of CARE Act funding which is determined by a formula based on the number of reported AIDS cases in their location and other factors. The application includes guidance from DHS on program requirements and expectations.

FY (Fiscal Year):  The fiscal year for Ryan White Part A funds is March 1 through February 28; the fiscal year for Part B and State Services funds runs from September 1 through August 31.

Grantee: Another term for the recipient of Part A funds. As the official recipient of those funds in the EMA, the CEO is the grantee. However, the CEO usually delegates his or her authority to administer Part A funds to an organizational unit within the city or county government (e.g., the county health department). Often, this entity is also referred to as the grantee. Use of the terms CEO and grantee helps to distinguish between the person ultimately responsible for the CARE Act grant (the CEO) and the entity which actually carries out the day-to-day operations associated with it (the grantee).

HDHHS: Houston Department of Health and Human Services.

HIV Disease: The entire spectrum of the natural history of the human immunodeficiency virus, from post infection through the clinical definition of AIDS.

Homeless: individuals who lack a fixed, regular and adequate nighttime residence, including those who live in locations not meant for human habitation such as public parks and streets, those who live in or are transitioning from temporary housing or shelters, and those who have persistent housing instability.

HOPWA (Housing Opportunities for Persons With AIDS): A program administered by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development which provides funding to support housing for PLWHAs and their families.  Locally, HOPWA funds are administered by the City of Houston Department of Housing and Community Development

HRSA (Health Resources and Services Administration): The agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that is responsible for administering the Ryan White Program.

HTBMN (How to Best Meet the Need): Annual process of the Quality Improvement Committee.  Workgroups are convened to review all service category definitions for Part A, Part B and State Services funding and recommend changes, if necessary, to improve them.

Injection Drug Users (IDU):  individuals who inject medications or drugs, including illegal drugs, hormones, and cosmetics.

IGA (Intergovernmental Agreement): A written agreement between a Part A grantee and another governmental agency in the EMA; these agreements usually address the allocation of funds across agencies or jurisdictions.

Incarcerated or Recently Released (IRR): individuals who are currently incarcerated in the jail or prison system or have been released from jail or prison within the past 12 months.

Incidence: The number of new cases of a disease that occur during a specified time period.

Incidence Rate: The number of cases of a disease per population per specified time period often expressed per 100,000 population (AIDS rates are often expressed this way).

Linkage to Care: Post-referral verification that care/services were accessed by an HIV positive individual being referred into care.

MSA  (Metropolitan Statistical Area):  The geographic area designated to receive CDC prevention funds.  The boundaries of the metropolitan areas are defined by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).

MSM:  Men who have sex with men.

MCSM: Men of color who have sex with men.

Needs Assessment: A systematic process to determine the service needs of a defined population; a definition of the extent of need, available services, and service gaps by population and geographic area.

OMB (Office of Management and Budget): The office within the executive branch of the Federal government which prepares the President's annual budget, develops the Federal government's fiscal program, oversees administration of the budget and reviews government regulations.

Out of Care:  HRSA defines an individual as “out-of-care” if they have not had a CD4 count or viral load test, been prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART) and have not had a primary care visit in the previous 12 months.

Part A: The part of the CARE Act that provides emergency assistance to localities (EMAs) disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic.

Part B: The part of the CARE Act that enables States and territories to improve the quality, availability, and organization of health care and support services to individuals with HIV and their families.

Part C: The part of the CARE Act that supports primary medical care and early intervention services to people living with HIV disease through grants to service organizations.

Part D: The part of the CARE Act that supports research and services for children with HIV and their families and the HIV/AIDS Dental Reimbursement Program..

Part F: The part of the CARE Act that funds AETC, SPNS.

PHS (Public Health Service): An administrative entity of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. As of October 1, 1995, HRSA is an operating division of the PHS.

Planning Council: A planning body appointed or established by the Chief Elected Official of an EMA whose basic function is to establish a plan for the delivery of HIV care services in the EMA and establish priorities for the use of CARE Act funds.

PLWH:  Person/People Living with HIV disease.

PLWHA:  Person/People Living with HIV/AIDS.  

Prevalence: The total number of persons living with a specific disease or condition at a given time.

Prevalence Rate: The proportion of a population living at a given time with a condition or disease (compared to the incidence rate, which refers to new cases).

Priority Setting: The process used by a planning council or consortium to prioritize service categories, to ensure consistency with locally identified needs, and to address how best to meet each priority.

Public Health Surveillance: An ongoing, systematic process of collecting, analyzing and using data on specific health conditions and diseases (e.g., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance system for AIDS cases).

QA (Quality Assurance): A broad spectrum of evaluation activities aimed at ensuring compliance with minimum quality standards.

Ql (Quality Improvement): Activities aimed at improving performance.

Resource Allocation: The legislatively mandated responsibility of planning councils to assign CARE Act dollars or percentages across specific service categories, using key information such as documented need, defined service priorities and other resources as part of the process.

RFP (Request for Proposal): An open and competitive process for selecting providers of services (sometimes called RFA or Request for Application).

SAMHSA (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration): The entity within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that administers alcohol, substance abuse and mental health programs.

SCSN (Statewide Coordinated Statement of Need): A written statement of HIV-related service needs for the entire State; the SCSN is developed through a process that includes representatives of all CARE Act Parts, providers, PLWHs and public health agencies.

Seroprevalence: The number of persons in a population who test HlV-positive based on serology (blood serum) specimens; often presented as a percent of the total specimens tested or as a rate per 100,000 persons tested.

Seroprevalence Report: A report that provides information about the percent or rate of people in specific testing groups and populations who have tested positive for HIV.

SIRR (Serving the Incarcerated and Recently Released Partnership): SIRR, a project of The Houston Regional HIV/AIDS Resource Group, started in December 2009, building upon the local discharge planning pilot project between the Harris County Sheriff’s Office, Houston Area Community Services, Legacy Community Health and the Houston Ryan White Part A Grant Administration.  The group meets monthly.

SPNS (Special Projects of National Significance): A health services demonstration, research and evaluation program funded under Part F of the CARE Act. SPNS projects are awarded competitively.

Support Services: Ryan White grantees must spend at least 75% of funds on core medical servicesThe remaining funds may be spent on support services, defined as services needed to achieve outcomes that affect the HIV-related clinical status of a person with HIV/AIDS. HRSA outlines support services as outreach, medical transportation, language services, respite care for persons caring for individuals with HIV/AIDS and referrals for health care and other support services.  

Surveillance Report: A report providing information on the number of reported cases of a disease such as AIDS, nationally and for specific sub-populations.

TA: Technical Assistance.

Target Population: A population to be reached through some action or intervention; may refer to groups with specific demographic (e.g. Latino, Women, Youth) or geographic characteristics (e.g. rural, specific zip code).

Transgender: individuals who cross or transcend culturally-defined categories of gender.

Transmission Category: A grouping of disease exposure and infection routes; in relation to HIV disease, exposure groupings include injecting drug use, men who have sex with men, heterosexual contact, perinatal (mother to child) transmission, etc.